VeChain proposes to use the immutability of blockchains to store non-financial data through a tokenized system. Specifically, its Thor Core client was designed to store supply chain data and execute relevant applications based on smart contracts. This client is largely based on Geth, the Go implementation of the Ethereum protocol, but with changes to support an alternative consensus algorithm called “Proof-of-Authority,” which relies on a validator’s public identity and reputation. If a validator misbehaves, it is excluded from the network and its public reputation is tarnished. However, there is no collateral forfeiture or “punishment” other than loss of reputation, which we view as a key risk of the project. Like Ethereum, it uses the Ethereum Virtual Machine for the computation of smart contracts. While this design choice makes it easier to bootstrap the network, we note that, like Ethereum, Thor Core is unable to perform API calls, which may limit some of its advertised use cases.